It is not clear whether such a transfer of copyright is generally permitted.  Promoters or research institutes, public museums or art galleries may have guidelines that stipulate that copyright to research, content, intellectual property, employment or funds cannot be transferred to third parties, commercially or otherwise. Normally, a single author signs on behalf of all authors, perhaps without their conscience or permission.  A comprehensive understanding of copyright transfer contracts requires a firm understanding of „Legal Speak“ and copyright, in an increasingly complex landscape of licensing and copyright[Note 1][Note 2] and for which there is a steep learning curve for librarians and researchers.   Thus, in many cases, authors may not even have the right to transfer full rights to publishers or agreements have been amended to provide complete texts on repositories or archives, regardless of the subsequent publication contract.  Traditional methods of scientific publication require a complete and exclusive transfer of copyright from authors to publisher, usually as a precondition for publication.      This process entrusts control and ownership of the dissemination and reproduction of authors as authors to publishers as broadcasters, who are then able to monetize the process.  The transfer and ownership of copyright is a delicate tension between the protection of authors` rights and the interests of publishers and institutions, both in financial and reputational law.  In OA publications, authors generally retain copyright in their work, and articles and other editions benefit from a wide range of licenses depending on the type. Some commercial publishers, such as Elsevier, exploit „nominal copyrights“ when they require the transfer of full and exclusive rights from authors to the publishing house for OA articles, while copyright remains in the name of the authors.
 The assumption that this practice is a precondition for publication is misleading, as even works that are publicly available can be redirected, printed and disseminated by publishers. Instead, authors can grant a simple, non-exclusive publication license that meets the same criteria. However, according to a 2013 survey by Taylor and Francis, nearly half of the researchers surveyed said they would continue to simply transfer copyright to OA articles.  2.1 Authors/publishers` grants (for the United States, Canada or the United Kingdom). Government staff: to the extent that the current legislation or regulations transfer it) to the publisher (the owner, if not the publisher) the following rights to the article, including any additional documents, as well as any part, extract or element of it: 2.3 The publisher may transfer, in whole or in part, to third parties the rights conferred on it under clauses 2.1 and 2.2 or grant licenses to third parties for the use of user rights. Rights arising from agreements between the author and the collective management companies, in particular VG Wort to which the author is entitled, are not affected. Therefore, critics argue that copyright in scientific research is largely ineffective in its proposed use, but that it has also been wrongly acquired in many cases, and that in practice it is contrary to its fundamental purpose of protecting authors and other scientific research. Plan S requires authors and their respective institutions to retain copyrights to articles without transferring them to publishers; also supported by OA2020. [Note 4] The researchers found no evidence of the need for a transfer of copyright for publication or, in all cases, where a publishing house exercised copyright in the best interests of the authors.